While still a boy, he was sent to England for further schooling. He entered the University of Cambridge , where he became proficient in two classical and several modern European languages. After returning to India in , he held various administrative and professorial posts in Baroda Vadodara and Calcutta Kolkata. Turning to his native culture , he began the serious study of Yoga and Indian languages, including classical Sanskrit. From to Aurobindo partook in the struggle to free India from the British raj rule.
|Published (Last):||21 February 2005|
|PDF File Size:||5.18 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||7.81 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Biography[ edit ] Early life time[ edit ] Aurobindo Ghose was born in Calcutta now Kolkata , Bengal Presidency , India on 15 August in a Bengali Kayastha family that was associated with the village of Konnagar in the Hoogly district.
His father, Krishna Dhun Ghose, was then assistant surgeon of Rangpur in Bengal and later civil surgeon of Khulna , and a former member of the Brahmo Samaj religious reform movement who had become enamoured with the then-new idea of evolution while pursuing medical studies in Edinburgh.
Aurobindo had two elder siblings, Benoybhusan and Manmohan , a younger sister, Sarojini, and a younger brother, Barindrakumar also referred to as Barin. Although his family were Bengali , his father believed British culture to be superior. He and his two elder siblings were sent to the English-speaking Loreto House boarding school in Darjeeling , in part to improve their language skills and in part to distance them from their mother, who had developed a mental illness soon after the birth of her first child.
Darjeeling was a centre of British life in India and the school was run by Irish nuns, through which the boys would have been exposed to Christian religious teachings and symbolism. In England, ca. To achieve this it was necessary that they study in England and so it was there that the entire family moved in Drewett in Manchester. This was a prerequisite for admission to good English schools and, after two years, in , the elder two siblings were enrolled at Manchester Grammar School.
Aurobindo was considered too young for enrolment and he continued his studies with the Drewetts, learning history, Latin, French , geography and arithmetic.
Although the Drewetts were told not to teach religion, the boys inevitably were exposed to Christian teachings and events, which generally bored Aurobindo and sometimes repulsed him. There was little contact with his father, who wrote only a few letters to his sons while they were in England, but what communication there was indicated that he was becoming less endeared to the British in India than he had been, on one occasion describing the British Raj as a "heartless government".
Cotton secured for him a place in Baroda State Service and arranged for him to meet the prince. His father died upon hearing this news. He was later promoted to the post of vice-principal. He linked up with resistance groups in Bengal and Madhya Pradesh , while travelling to these states.
He established contact with Lokmanya Tilak and Sister Nivedita. He formally moved to Calcutta in after the announcement of the Partition of Bengal. In , on a visit to Calcutta, he married year-old Mrinalini, the daughter of Bhupal Chandra Bose, a senior official in government service.
Aurobindo was 28 at that time. Mrinalini died seventeen years later in December during the influenza pandemic. In his public activities he favoured non-co-operation and passive resistance; in private he took up secret revolutionary activity as a preparation for open revolt, in case that the passive revolt failed.
He helped establish a series of youth clubs, including the Anushilan Samiti of Calcutta in In at the Surat session of Congress where moderates and extremists had a major showdown, he led along with extremists along with Bal Gangadhar Tilak. The Congress split after this session. He was arrested again in May in connection with the Alipore Bomb Case. He was acquitted in the ensuing trial, following the murder of chief prosecution witness Naren Goswami within jail premises which subsequently led to the case against him collapsing.
Aurobindo was subsequently released after a year of isolated incarceration. Once out of the prison he started two new publications, Karmayogin in English and Dharma in Bengali.
He also delivered the Uttarpara Speech hinting at the transformation of his focus to spiritual matters. This sparked an outburst of public anger against the British, leading to civil unrest and a nationalist campaign by groups of revolutionaries that included Aurobindo. In , Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki attempted to kill Magistrate Kingsford, a judge known for handing down particularly severe sentences against nationalists. However, the bomb thrown at his horse carriage missed its target and instead landed in another carriage and killed two British women, the wife and daughter of barrister Pringle Kennedy.
Aurobindo was also arrested on charges of planning and overseeing the attack and imprisoned in solitary confinement in Alipore Jail. The trial of the Alipore Bomb Case lasted for a year, but eventually, he was acquitted on 6 May His defence counsel was Chittaranjan Das.
Consequently, his aim went far beyond the service and liberation of the country. He could not explain this and continued to have various such experiences from time to time. He knew nothing of yoga at that time and started his practice of it without a teacher, except for some rules that he learned from Ganganath, a friend who was a disciple of Brahmananda. Aurobindo was influenced by the guidance he got from the yogi, who had instructed Aurobindo to depend on an inner guide and any kind of external guru or guidance would not be required.
As Aurobindo disappeared from view, the warrant was held back and the prosecution postponed. Aurobindo manoeuvred the police into open action and a warrant was issued on 4 April , but the warrant could not be executed because on that date he had reached Pondicherry, then a French colony.
Pondicherry — [ edit ] In Pondicherry, Sri Aurobindo dedicated himself to his spiritual and philosophical pursuits. In , after four years of secluded yoga, he started a monthly philosophical magazine called Arya. This ceased publication in Many years later, he revised some of these works before they were published in book form.
His letters, most of which were written in the s, numbered in the several thousand. These were later collected and published in book form in three volumes of Letters on Yoga. In the late s, he resumed work on a poem he had started earlier—he continued to expand and revise this poem for the rest of his life. Around 60, people attended to see his body resting peacefully.
Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru , and the President Rajendra Prasad praised him for his contribution to Yogic philosophy and the independence movement. National and international newspapers commemorated his death. Alfassa , came to be known as The Mother. In her 20s she studied occultism with Max Theon.
Along with her husband, Paul Richard, she went to Pondicherry on 29 March ,  and finally settled there in Sri Aurobindo considered her his spiritual equal and collaborator. After 24 November , when Sri Aurobindo retired into seclusion, he left it to her to plan, build and run the ashram, the community of disciples which had gathered around them.
Sometime later, when families with children joined the ashram, she established and supervised the Sri Aurobindo International Centre of Education with its experiments in the field of education. When he died in , she continued their spiritual work, directed the ashram, and guided their disciples.
Father Krishna Dhanu Ghosh was a doctor and his mother Swarnalata Devi was a skilled housewife and a woman of very religious temperament. His father did not like Indian culture much and paid more attention to Christianity, so he put his children in the English convent school. His maternal grandfather Shri Raj Narayan Bose was a prominent person of Bengali literature, and his works are unique even today. In , Arvind Ghosh and his brother were sent to England to complete their studies and were admitted to Cambridge at the age of eighteen. Work and promotion In , Arvind Ghosh returned to India and was appointed to the post of Vice-Principal in a university in Baroda present Baroda and started working at a salary of Rs per month.
Biography of Aurobindo Ghosh (1872 -1950)
Early Life of Aurobindo Ghosh: In the eastern firmament of globe, Aurobindo outshines all spiritual and noble personalities by virtue of his versatile genius and splendid personality sprawling over the entire human race. His life was different from others and he was deeply immersed in gaining insight into the spiritual realm. Being an idealist and spiritualist to the core, he devoted his last part of his life after leaving politics to develop his spirituality in his own Ashram at Pondicherry through Yoga and meditation. Essay 2. According to him, everyone has something divine in him which must be identified, developed and used.
Aurobindo Ghosh Biography in English