BIOMEDICAL ETHICS DAVID DEGRAZIA PDF

Visit our Beautiful Books page and find lovely books for kids, photography lovers and more. Home Contact Us Help Free delivery worldwide. Meier, Care of the Hopelessly Ill: Visit our Beautiful Books page and find lovely books for kids, photography lovers and more. Appropriate for courses taught in philosophy departments as well as in schools of medicine and nursing, the collection covers provocative topics such as conflicts of interest in medicine, advance directives, physician-assisted suicide, and the rationing of health care.

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Biomedical Ethics, 4th edition, Pages: 1 [I. In normative ethics, philosophers attempt to determine what is morally right and what is morally wrong with regard to human action. In metaethics, philosophers are concerned with tasks such as analyzing the nature of moral judgments and specifying appropriate methods for the justification of particular moral judgments and theoretical systems. In applied normative ethics. Be in accordance with the facts of moral life.

Function heuristically stimulating further investigation, learning [Gk. A deontological theory maintains, in contrast, that the rightness and wrongness of human action is not exclusively in the extreme case, not at all a function of the goodness or badness of consequences.

In "collapsing" morality into prudence, ethical egoism does not accord with a commonly experienced phe[7]nomenon of the moral life, the tension between self-interest and morality, between "what would be best for me" and "what is the morally right thing. According to Bentham, only pleasure understood broadly to include any type of satisfaction or enjoyment has intrinsic value; only pain understood broadly to include any dissatisfaction, frustration, or displeasure has intrinsic disvalue.

According to Mill, only happiness has intrinsic value; only unhappiness has intrinsic disvalue. Whereas ethical egoism seems to wrongly "collapse" morality into prudence [here seemingly meaning convenience or advantage, whereas prudent normally means wise, judicious in practical affairs, discreet or circumspect, cautious, provident: showing or having foresight, mindful in making provision, frugal], it would seem that act-utilitarianism "expands" morality so as to destroy the [nonmoral] realm of prudence [inasmuch as] a person is continually under a moral obligation to produce the greatest balance of good over evil, everyone considered.

For a physician to damage the interests of an individual patient in an effort to maximize utility surely seems wrong. Contra act-utilitarianism, such means cannot be justified by the ends.

More broadly, rule-utilitarianism may fail to provide grounds for obligations of justice. The "supreme principle of morality," the principle from which all of our various duties derive, Kant calls the "categorical imperative. All persons, as rational creatures, are entitled to respect, not only from others but also from themselves as well.

From this. AND Imperfect duties require us to pursue or promote certain goals e. There is no duty to perform any specific beneficent action, but we do have the duty "to formulate a plan of life that embodies a commitment to the goal of personal development" including 19 promoting the wellbeing of others. The imperfect duty to oneself of beneficence requires no specific actions. Beneficence, which would allow lying in some circumstances, is an imperfect duty, so subordinate to a perfect duty.

Kantianism would prohibit using people for experimentation, since they would be used as means, rather than ends. Imperfect duties do not generate rights. It supports the ideas that individual rights cannot be overridden by "utilitarian" considerations and that the end does not justify the means. Con: 1 It runs afoul of our feeling that there should be exceptions to never lying and always keeping promises.

Where there is conflict, one must make a "considered decision" as to which duty has priority. The 7 prima facie duties: duties of: 1 fidelity.

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David DeGrazia

Appropriate for courses taught in philosophy departments as well as in schools on medicine and nursing, the collection covers provocative topics such as conflicts of interest in medicine, advance directives, physician-assisted suicide, and the rationing of health care. The effective pedagogical features include chapter introductions, argument sketches, explanations of medical terms, headnotes, and annotated bibliographies. About the Author s Thomas A. Mappes holds a B. He is professor of philosophy at Frostburg State University, where he has taught since He is the coeditor with Jane S. David DeGrazia earned a B.

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