Description[ edit ] This relative of the poppy is a shrub growing up to 6 metres tall. There are many leaves toward the ends of the branches. The inflorescence is a branching panicle up to 60 centimeters long. The purple-green flower lacks petals but has sepals each up to a centimetre long. The anthers dangle from the flower center by their filaments.

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Reproductive Biology The small apetalous flowers are not very showy, yet are frequently visited by non-native syrphid flies and honeybees Apis mellifera within the introduced range on Maui, Hawaii. Tanner observed honeybees visiting the male flowers in the tropical montane rain forests of Jamaica.

The structure of the flower, with anthers dangling from pendent filaments, also suggests adaptations for wind pollination. Tanner mentions that Bocconia is also successfully wind-pollinated. Physiology and Phenology B. Although May to August appear to be the peak fruiting period in the Hawaiian Islands Chimera and Drake, , in its native range it can flower and fruit sporadically throughout the year Adams ; Little et al.

In Jamaica, Bellingham et al. As the tree grows in size and increases its number of stems and branches, it has the ability to produce a significant number of panicles and ultimately seeds. In Maui, a Bocconia tree approximately 4 m tall with three main trunks arising from the base basal diameters: The branched fruiting panicles, averaging Nevertheless, there were also 94 old infrutescences present on the tree at the time of this survey, completely devoid of fruit, which appear to have persisted from the previous year and which could account for another , seeds produced by this tree.

It is worthy of note that the tree sampled for the fruiting estimate 4 m is approximately half as tall as the largest recorded individuals Bailey and Bailey, A larger tree would presumably produce a much greater number of seeds during the fruiting seasons. Once the immature capsules approximately12 mm long change from a dull, greyish-blue colour to a pale yellow colour, they dehisce by two caducous valves from the base to reveal the single, shiny-black seed.

The seed is approximately mm long and is covered by a bright red to scarlet aril, which covers about mm of its length. Longevity Bellingham et al. Associations In Costa Rica, Williams-Linera and Ewel reported that the mycorrhizal status of Bocconia is unknown, but that no mycorrhizal fungi have been observed on the root preparations they examined.

This factor could contribute to the success of B. Environmental Requirements Tanner states that it is common in disturbed areas of the tropical montane forests of the Blue Mountains of Jamaica. In Puerto Rico, Francis


Bocconia frutescens

In late spring and early summer appear the small petal-less greenish-purple flowers in dense inch long panicles that are followed by gray fruit. Tolerant of most any soil. Grows in full sun or moderate shade and can be irrigated regularly or given little or no supplemental watering in coastal gardens. Not stem hardy to more than a moderate frost much below freezing but will resprout from base after freezing to the ground.



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