COURBE DE KUZNETS PDF

Kuznets had two similar explanations for this historical phenomenon: workers migrated from agriculture to industry; and rural workers moved to urban jobs. When controlling for this variable, the U-shape of the curve tends to disappear e. Deininger and Squire, Regarding the empirical evidence, based on large panels of countries or time series approaches, Fields considers the Kuznets hypothesis refuted. Manufacturing and export grew quickly and powerfully. Yet simultaneously, life expectancy was found to increase and population levels living in absolute poverty decreased.

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Moreover, further work on the Kuznets curve has found the relationship weak, as it is dependent on the precise functional form adopted e. Anand and Kanbur, a; Deininger and Squire, For a detailed discussion of the EKC see Panayotou.

While the EKC is intuitively straightforward, the relationship between economic growth and environmental quality is, in fact, quite complex. But, over the past generation, confidence in the "Kuznets curve " has faded.

A similar idea was proposed by economist Thomas Piketty in his book Capital in the 21st Century. The EKC does not , of course, suggest that environmental problems can be conveniently ignored until higher income levels have been attained. Moreover, the EKC perpetuates an erroneous assumption - that environmental damage will not curtail economic growth. The standard Kuznets curve analysis , which assumed that rising inequality was the necessary price for development at lower levels of per capita income, did not hold true in recent empirical studies.

It should be noted that there is no evidence yet for the EKC to hold also for greenhouse gas emissions, which continue to increase with economic activity. Exacts:

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