ENGLISH INTONATION J.C.WELLS PDF

Intonation In every language of the world, in addition to speaking with consonants and vowels, we also vary the loudness, rhythm and musical pitch of our speech to transmit information. Many languages use these suprasegmental mechanisms as stress, "accent" or tone, but those uses are lexical or morphological, part of the words themselves. The most important element of prosody is pitch variation - melody - which we call intonation. In written language, we try to indicate prosody with punctuation - the period, comma, question mark, exclamation point and so on - and also with typography : boldface, underlining or small caps. These mechanisms are all relatively new; even the space between words was only invented in the 7th century! Instead of these meaning-based symbols, Musa offers a sound-based system of punctuation using the six accent marks without accompanying vowels.

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Intonation In every language of the world, in addition to speaking with consonants and vowels, we also vary the loudness, rhythm and musical pitch of our speech to transmit information. Many languages use these suprasegmental mechanisms as stress, "accent" or tone, but those uses are lexical or morphological, part of the words themselves.

The most important element of prosody is pitch variation - melody - which we call intonation. In written language, we try to indicate prosody with punctuation - the period, comma, question mark, exclamation point and so on - and also with typography : boldface, underlining or small caps. These mechanisms are all relatively new; even the space between words was only invented in the 7th century!

Instead of these meaning-based symbols, Musa offers a sound-based system of punctuation using the six accent marks without accompanying vowels. In other words, written Musa communicates the suprasegmental features of language the same way that speech does: by indicating the intonation.

For example, instead of using a? In addition, intonation allows us to express much subtler shades of meaning: surprise, skepticism, displeasure. Wells, Cambridge ]. The two Level accents, High and Low, are used to mark the end of intonation groups also called tone groups, intonation units or intonation phrases , which correspond to information groups: each departs from information already known to the listener the given to add new information.

An intonation group often, but not always, corresponds to a grammatical clause. The High Level accent is used for intonation groups that end on a rising tone, while Low Level is used when the group ends on a falling tone. They are written as suffixes attached to the final word in the group. Within each intonation group is a tonic or nucleus , which carries the most prominent pitch change. The High Rising accent is used for high rising tones, and so forth in a straightforward manner: the accent is interpreted as a small diagram of the pitch contour.

Did you see that? I saw it! There are also tones with more complex patterns, and these are written with complex accents. A rise falling tone is an exaggerated rise followed by a lesser fall, as if to mollify the rise. Likewise, a fall rising tone is an exaggerated fall followed by a lesser rise, as if to mollify the fall.

The first, dominant, accent is always on top. You should do it. Why did they? Sometimes, there is a second pitched element at the end of an intonation group, where there is a rise instead of the expected fall after a falling tonic.

These compound tones are written in Musa with only one slanted accent - the compound element is shown by the unexpected High Level accent at the end.

In other cases, there are other pitched elements before the tonic, and these pretonic heads can also be marked with slanted accents. Much of the time, the tonic falls at the end of the intonation group, and Musa makes this a little easier to write using final accents that combine the tonic accent with the intonation group accent, as follows : Tone.

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English Intonation: An Introduction [With CDROM]

Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks. Richard Nordquist Updated March 04, In phonetics , an intonation phrase is a stretch or chunk of spoken material that has its own intonation pattern or tune. The intonation phrase IP is the basic unit of intonation. In a phonetic analysis, the vertical bar symbol is used to represent the boundary between two intonation phrases. Examples and Observations "When speakers produce words in a row, we can usually observe that they are structured: individual words are grouped together to form an intonation phrase Intonation phrases can coincide with breath groups

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English Intonation an Introduction - J.C.wells

This accessible introduction shows students how to recognize and reproduce the intonation patterns of English, providing clear explanations of what they mean and how they are used. It looks in particular at three key functions of intonation - to express our attitude, to Intonation - the rise and fall of pitch in our voices - plays a crucial role in how we express meaning. It looks in particular at three key functions of intonation - to express our attitude, to structure our messages to one another, and to focus attention on particular parts of what we are saying. An invaluable guide to how English intonation works, it is complete with extensive exercises, drills and practice material, encouraging students to produce and understand the intonation patterns for themselves. The accompanying CD contains a wealth of spoken examples, clearly demonstrating English intonation in context.

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