Define research and explain the different between applied and basic research. Answer : business research as an organized,systematic,database,critical,objective,scientific inquiry or investigation into a specific problem, undertaken with the purpose of finding answers or solution to it. Why is it important for managers to know about research? Answer : the important for managers to know about research because they will become more discriminating when sifting through information in business journals,take calculate risk in the decision making, knowing full well the probabilities attached to the different possible outcomes. Exlain why handling the manager — researcher relationship effectively is important. Answer : it is very important because managers should know about research for good decision making.

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The skill building approach provides students with practical perspectives on how research can be applied in real business situations. The fifth edition has a new chapter on qualitative data analysis, featuring a case study of the research process. The chapters on scientific investigation, the broad problem area and defining the problem statement, measurement of variables, experimental designs, sampling, and quantitative data analysis have all been substantially revised.

Additional real-life cases have been included and examples are taken from Europe, Asia and the US to give students a comprehensive view of modern business research methods. The text is supplemented by a companion website at www. What is research? Business research. Definition of business research. Research and the manager. Types of business research: applied and basic.

Applied research. Basic or fundamental research. Managers and research. The manager and the consultant-researcher. The manager-researcher relationship. Knowledge about research and managerial effectiveness.

Ethics and business research. Discussion questions. The hallmarks of scientific research. Precision and confidence. Some obstacles to conducting scientific research in the management area. The hypothetico-deductive method. The seven-step process in the hypothetico-deductive method. Review of the hypothetico-deductive method.

Other types of research. Case studies. Action research. Broad problem area. Preliminary information gathering. Nature of information to be gathered. Literature review.

Conducting the literature review. Defining the problem statement. What makes a good problem statement? The research proposal. Managerial implications. Ethical issues in the preliminary stages of investigation. Practice projects. Some online resources useful for business research.

Bibliographical databases. APA format for referencing relevant articles. Referencing and quotation in the literature review section. The need for a theoretical framework. Types of variables. Theoretical framework. The components of the theoretical framework. Theoretical framework for the example of air safety violations. Hypothesis development. Definition of a hypothesis. Statement of hypotheses: formats. Directional and nondirectional hypotheses.

Null and alternate hypotheses. Hypothesis testing with qualitative research: negative case analysis. Practice project. The research design. Purpose of the study: exploratory, descriptive, hypothesis testing analytical and predictive , case study analysis. Exploratory study. Descriptive study. Hypothesis testing. Case study analysis. Review of the purpose of the study. Type of investigation: causal versus correlational. Extent of researcher interference with the study.

Study setting: contrived and noncontrived. Unit of analysis: individuals, dyads, groups, organizations, cultures. Time horizon: cross-sectional versus longitudinal studies. Cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies. Review of elements of research design. How variables are measured. Operationalization of variables. Operationalization: dimensions and elements.

Operationalizing the multidimensional concept of achievement motivation. What operationalization is not. Review of operationalization. International dimensions of operationalization.

Nominal scale. Ordinal scale. Interval scale. Ratio scale. Review of scales. Rating scales. Dichotomous scale. Category scale.

Semantic differential scale. Numerical scale. Itemized rating scale. Likert scale. Fixed or constant sum scale. Stapel scale. Graphic rating scale. Consensus scale. Other scales. Ranking scales. Paired comparison. Forced choice. Comparative scale. International dimensions of scaling. Goodness of measures.


Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach



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