AMORTIGUADORES SISMICOS PDF

ABSTRACT: Excessive or prolonged vibrations in civil structures can produce annoyances in the users and damages in structural and nonstructural elements. These vibrations are determined by the dynamic parameters mass, stiffness and damping , and is modifying these structural characteristics what reduces the response of the structure. The reduction of the structural response is the objective in the earthquake engineering an seismic design, guaranteeing a suitable strength, stiffness and ductility. In the past years have been purposed several alternatives to diminish the structural vulnerability, among them active, passive, hybrid and semi-active control systems which have been implemented in flexible structures skyscrapers and suspension bridges in Japan and the United States.

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ABSTRACT: Excessive or prolonged vibrations in civil structures can produce annoyances in the users and damages in structural and nonstructural elements. These vibrations are determined by the dynamic parameters mass, stiffness and damping , and is modifying these structural characteristics what reduces the response of the structure. The reduction of the structural response is the objective in the earthquake engineering an seismic design, guaranteeing a suitable strength, stiffness and ductility.

In the past years have been purposed several alternatives to diminish the structural vulnerability, among them active, passive, hybrid and semi-active control systems which have been implemented in flexible structures skyscrapers and suspension bridges in Japan and the United States.

This paper includes a brief historical summary of the development of these structural control systems and presents the state-of-the-art and state-of-the-practice of this technology.

In addition, describes the limitations and advantages of the systems in the context of the structural seismic design and rehabilitation. Las matrices M, C y K representan la matriz de masa, amortiguamiento y rigidez de la estructura, respectivamente.

Sistema de N grados de libertad sometido a un movimiento en la base Figure 1. Para modificar la respuesta de la estructura se puede variar M, C o K. De otra parte, aumentarla para flexibilizar la estructura de tal manera que su periodo natural sea tal que la respuesta a un movimiento en la base sea casi nula ver Figura 2 , conlleva problemas de resistencia en los elementos estructurales. Figura 2. Tomado de [11] Figure 2.

Building seismic force calculation. FHE method. Los dispositivos de control pasivo producen fuerzas en respuesta al movimiento de la estructura. Control activo: Un sistema de control activo requiere de una fuente externa de potencia para alimentar los actuadores que aplican fuerzas a la estructura. Estos dispositivos frecuentemente son considerados como dispositivos pasivos controlables.

Figura 3. Model of a passive structural control system [13] 3. Figura 4. Clark Figure 4. Figura 5. Clark Figure 5. Tohoku Electric Power Company. Photo: P. Figura 6. Figura 7. Figura 8. Puente Amolanas Chile Figure 8. Otros casos pueden ser consultados en [15]. Figura 9. Torres Petrona Malasia Figure 9. Estos amortiguadores consisten en una masa secundaria conectada a la estructura mediante un resorte y un amortiguador.

Figura Model of an active structural control system [13] Para analizar el efecto de los sistemas de control activo en una estructura lineal bajo condiciones ideales, se considera una estructura modelada mediante un sistema discreto de N grados de libertad.

Fotos en [10]. Sistema AMD implementado en el edificio Figure Kyobashi Seiwa Building Japan b. Implemented AMD system 3. Sistema HMD implementado en el edificio Figure Shinjuku Tower Japan b. Estos sistemas son no lineales y, por lo tanto, los investigadores han desarrollado varias estrategias de control incluyendo control difuso, control basado en redes neuronales y control adaptivo.

Por lo tanto, a diferencia de los sistemas de control activo, los dispositivos de control semiactivo no pueden desestabilizar el sistema estructural. El futuro de estos fluidos para aplicaciones de control estructural es muy positivo [6]. Los dispositivos de aleaciones con memoria de forma son otros sistemas con un gran potencial para el control estructural semiactivo, ya que se pueden usar como sistemas de rigidez variable [16].

Seismic Protection. Ley de D Thesis]. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota,

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