CHIRONIUS CARINATUS PDF

Search Menu Abstract Chironius is one of the most speciose genera of the South American colubrid snakes. Although the genus represents a well-known radiation of diurnal racers, its monophyly, affinities with other Neotropical colubrid genera, and intrageneric relationships are open questions. Here, we present a phylogenetic analysis of Chironius based on a data matrix that combines one nuclear c-mos and two mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA genes with 37 morphological characters derived from scutellation, skull, and hemipenial features. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using maximum parsimony MP and maximum likelihood ML.

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Search Menu Abstract Chironius is one of the most speciose genera of the South American colubrid snakes. Although the genus represents a well-known radiation of diurnal racers, its monophyly, affinities with other Neotropical colubrid genera, and intrageneric relationships are open questions.

Here, we present a phylogenetic analysis of Chironius based on a data matrix that combines one nuclear c-mos and two mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA genes with 37 morphological characters derived from scutellation, skull, and hemipenial features. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using maximum parsimony MP and maximum likelihood ML. Our combined morphological and molecular analyses strongly support the monophyly of the genus Chironius and its sister-group relationship with a clade formed by the genera Dendrophidion and Drymobius.

Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Chironius is still controversial, although five clades are retrieved with medium to strong support. Colubrid snakes have a nearly worldwide distribution, and are extremely variable in habit, behaviour, and morphology.

Its distribution ranges from the northern coast of Honduras to Uruguay and north-eastern Argentina. Chironius species are long and slender, oviparous snakes that are mostly diurnal racers of terrestrial or arboreal habits. Dixon et al. Their tree topology was not obtained using computer-based techniques, and no out-group taxa were included in the study.

Nevertheless, they discussed the affinities of Chironius with the other South American colubrid snakes, suggesting that Dendrophidion represents the sister-group of the genus. Following Dixon et al. She analysed all Chironius species and subspecies, plus 20 out-group taxa from ten colubrid genera. Hollis recognized Dixon et al. Subsequently, Klaczko et al.

More recently, Pyron et al. Here, we present a phylogenetic hypothesis for 14 species of the genus Chironius based on a combined molecular and morphological data matrix that includes one nuclear c-mos and two mitochondrial 12S and 16S genes, and 37 morphological characters retrieved from scuttelation, skull, and hemipenial features.

We further test the monophyly of the genus and provide additional evidence for its sister-group relationship within the South American radiation of colubrid snakes. We analysed and added as out-group taxa 12 species representing 11 colubrid genera, as follows: Coluber constrictor Linnaeus, ; Opheodrys aestivus Linnaeus, ; Dendrophidion percarinatum Cope, ; Drymarchon corais F.

Coluber constrictor was used to root the analysis. Tissue samples for DNA extractions were available for all out-group species and for 13 out of 16 species of Chironius, with Chironius vincenti Boulenger, , C. Morphological data Morphological characters were obtained from three different morphological complexes: scutellation body and head scales , skull osteology, and hemipenis.

Whenever possible, more than one specimen was sampled. All characters were weighted equally, and all multistate characters were analysed as unordered. In cases of an unknown character state or inapplicability of the character state, the character was coded as unknown. The morphological data matrix is provided Appendix S2. Primer sequences used to amplify and sequence the four sampled gene regions are presented in Table 1.

All sequences were deposited in GenBank for the accession numbers, see Table 2. Table 1. Primer sequences used to amplify the genes examined in this study Gene.

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CHIRONIUS CARINATUS PDF

Chironius carinatus Further, we cannot control how users will interpret cgironius information provided on this site. An agile snake which will usually ascend into trees if disturbed. Head is distinct from neck. Annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Cuzco Amazonico, Peru.

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Mikam Can grow to a maximum of about 2. A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. General Approach to Management While most cases will be minor, not requiring admission, some cases will be more severe, requiring admission and treatment, so assess carefully before early discharge. Chironius carinatus, the Amazon Whipsnake. Recent notes regarding West Indian reptiles and amphibians.

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