E-mail: moc. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background: Natural products with therapeutic properties such as plants, minerals, and animal products, for many years, were the main sources of drugs for the treatment of numerous diseases; hence selection of Lawsonia inermis L. Henna to study its hepatoprotective activity was considered. Objectives: This was an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of L. Materials and Methods: The L.
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Tunisia[ edit ] In Tunisia , the Jewish wedding custom acts to clean the bride by bathing her, removing her body hair and painting her with henna. Henna is known to be dangerous to people with glucosephosphate dehydrogenase deficiency G6PD deficiency , which is more common in males than females. Infants and children of particular ethnic groups, mainly from the Middle East and North Africa, are especially vulnerable.
The health risks involved in pre-mixed paste can be significant. FDA has not approved henna for direct application to the skin. It is, however, grandfathered in as a hair dye and can only be imported for that purpose.
Natural henna[ edit ] Natural henna produces a rich red-brown stain which can darken in the days after it is first applied. It is sometimes referred to as "red henna" to differentiate it from products sold as "black henna" or "neutral henna," which may not actually contain henna, but are instead made from other plants or dyes.
Neutral henna[ edit ] Neutral henna does not change the color of hair. This is not henna powder; it is usually the powder of the plant Senna italica often referred to by the synonym Cassia obovata or closely related Cassia and Senna species. Black henna[ edit ] Black henna powder may be derived from indigo from the plant Indigofera tinctoria.
It may also contain unlisted dyes and chemicals  such as para-phenylenediamine PPD , which can stain skin black quickly, but can cause severe allergic reactions and permanent scarring if left on for more than 2—3 days. Partly fermented, dried indigo was called black henna because it could be used in combination with henna to dye hair black.
This gave rise to the belief that there was such a thing as black henna which could dye skin black. Indigo will not dye skin black. Pictures of indigenous people with black body art either alkalized henna or from some other source also fed the belief that there was such a thing as black henna.
PPD can cause severe allergic reactions, with blistering, intense itching, permanent scarring, and permanent chemical sensitivities. Henna does not cause these injuries. If a person has had a black henna tattoo and later dyes their hair with chemical hair dye, the allergic reaction may be life-threatening and require hospitalization. Do not colour your hair if Physicians have urged governments to legislate against black henna because of the frequency and severity of injuries, especially to children.
This permits the artists to continue injuring others, unaware they are causing severe injuries. The high-profit margins of black henna and the demand for body art that emulates "tribal tattoos" further encourage artists to deny the dangers. Anyone who has an itching and blistering reaction to a black body stain should go to a doctor, and report that they have had an application of PPD to their skin. PPD sensitivity is lifelong. A person who has become sensitized through black henna tattoos may have future allergic reactions to perfumes, printer ink, chemical hair dyes, textile dye, photographic developer, sunscreen and some medications.
A person who has had a black henna tattoo should consult their physician about the health consequences of PPD sensitization.
CLASSIFICATION OF LAWSONIA INERMIS PDF
Tunisia[ edit ] In Tunisia , the Jewish wedding custom acts to clean the bride by bathing her, removing her body hair and painting her with henna. Henna is known to be dangerous to people with glucosephosphate dehydrogenase deficiency G6PD deficiency , which is more common in males than females. Infants and children of particular ethnic groups, mainly from the Middle East and North Africa, are especially vulnerable. The health risks involved in pre-mixed paste can be significant. FDA has not approved henna for direct application to the skin.
Faubei A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: The leaves gradually yellow and fall during prolonged dry or cool intervals. It classfication in dry and semi-arid habitats, in coastal secondary scrubs, along watercourses and in temporarily flooded riverbeds and riverine thickets Orwa et al. It is been used for colouring hair and hands from thousands of years. Lawsonia inermis — Wikipedia Lawsonia inermis Scientific classification Kingdom: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Title Line artwork Caption 1. Habitat Top of page L. Central Arid Zone Research Institute.