Shaktijar Checking up 5 a Listen to interview i again in groups of clawsroom. At the thinking-through stage, learners are confronted with activities designed to encourage them to process the text in some depth and to draw conclusions from the content. This suggests a broad perspective on curriculum in which concur- rent consideration is given to content, methodology and evaluation. While the learner-centred curriculum will contain similar elements and processes to traditional curricula, a key difference will be that information by and from learners will be built into every phase of the curriculum process.
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Richards Language Test Conseruction and Evaluatioa by j. Subject ro statutory exception and to the provisions of relevane collective licensing agreements, tno reproduction of any part may take place without the writen permission of Cambridge University Pres.
Communicative competence. Title Il. NB6 Foreign languages. L Title, I should also like to thank Jane Lockwood and Jack Richards for their advice and support Most of all I owe an enormous debt of gratitude to Roger Bowers whose detailed criticism of earlier drafts had a major impact on the final shape of the book.
Needless to say, any shortcomings in the book are mine alone, The author and publishers would like to thank the following for permission to seproduce copyright material: [Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Sydney for A. Morris and N. Stewart Dore Learning to learn front text: effective reading in the content areas pp. Palmer and P. Grellet Developing reading skills Heasley Study writing pp. Hover Think twice pp. Jones Use of English pp. Moulding Learning to listen pp.
Nunan and. Pattison Developing communication skils pp. Wells Learning through interaction pp. Nunan What do you think? Abbs, C. Candlin, C, Edelhoff, T. Moston and M. Candlin and C. Crawford Lifelines p. Slade and L. Norss Teaching casual conversation P. Nunan Syllabus design pp. Prabhu Second language pedagogy: a perspective pp. Wright Roles of teachers and learners p. Rivers and Mary S. Reprinted by permission.
In this book, I shall argue that, with the development of communica- tive language teaching, the separation of syllabus design and method- ology becomes increasingly problematical. If we maintain the traditional distinction between syllabus design and methodology, seeing syllabus design as being primarily concerned with the specification of what learners will learn, and methodology as being mainly concerned with specifying how learners will learn, then the design of learning tasks is part of methodology.
However, if we see curriculum planning as an integrated set of processes involving, among other things, the specification of both what and how, then the argument over whether the design and develop- ment of tasks belongs to syllabus design or to methodology becomes unimportant.
The examples of learning tasks in the book have been saken from a variety of sources. The ideas presented are relevant to teachers working in, or preparing for, a range of situations with a variety of learner types.
Ir tends to be the custom, in books of this sort, to append a list of questions to the end of each chapter. I have adopted a rather different approach by inserting questions into the text itself. At various points readers will find that they are invited to reflect on key points and questions, and relate these to their own situation. For much of this century, language teaching has been preoccupied with methods. Methods tend to exist as package deals, each with its own set of principles and operating procedures, each with its own set of preferred learning tasks.
Rather, I shall look at tasks in terms of their goals, the input daa, linguistic or otherwise, on which they ace based, the activities derived from the input, and the roles and settings implied by different tasks for teachers and learners, I shall also look at the issues involved in sequencing and integrating tasks, as well as at the factors to be considered in grading tasks.
While most tasks take one or other of the macroskills as their principal point of focus, Thave chosen to organise this analysis 2round what [consider to be three central characteristics: task goals, input, and activities. We shall also look at settings and learner and teacher roles implied by tasks.
There are several reasons for adopting this approach rather than analysing tasks purely in terms of macroskills. In the first place, few tasks involve only one skill.
It is rare that one only reads, or listens, or speaks, or writes Therefore, itis often difficult to assign tasks to one skill label or another. Secondly, I hope to encourage teachers to think more about the integra- tion and sequencing of tasks. The major purpose of this book then is to provide teachers with a framework for analysing learning tasks which will help them select, adapt or create their own learning tasks. Ihope that the book might be of some assistance in assigning the search for the one right method to the dustbin and in helping teachers develop, select or adapt tasks which are appropriate in terms of goals, input, activities, roles and settings, and difficulty.
Introduction The structure of the book Chapter 1 sets out some of the basic issues in relation to communicative learning tasks. There is a short section on communicative language teaching, and the role of the learner is discussed. Chapter 2 considers some of the central issues involved in language and learning relating these to tasks.
We shall look in particular at what is involved in listening, speaking, reading and writing in another language. The debate over whether tasks should have a real-world or pedagogic rationale is presented and we shall look at how tasks are related to the wider curriculum through the specification of goals.
In Chapter 3 we look at the central characteristics of tasks and a scheme is presented for analysing tasks. I suggest that, minimally, communicative tasks consist of some form of input data plus an activity. The input may be linguistic ic. These form the point of departure for the task. The activity specifies what learners are to do with the input.
We shall examine some of the central issues surrounding the selection of data and activities, looking in particular at the issues of authenticity and activity focus.
Chapter 4 looks at the roles for teachers and learners which are implicit in any task. We shall see how these roles change as the focus of the activity changes, and we shall explore some of the classroom implications of role variability. In Chapters 5 and 6, there is a shift of attention, We are no longer concerned with the characteristics of tasks in isolation, but with tasks in relation to one another.
Chapter 5 is concerned with some of the issues and difficulties involved in grading tasks. Chapter 6 presents the options available in sequencing and integrating tasks to form lessons or units of work.
Chapter 7 is devoted to tasks and teacher development. We take further the notion, introduced in Chapter 1, that tasks form a useful point of entry into the study of the curriculum. We look at task construction and evaluation, and suggestions are made for introducing tasks in teacher development workshops.
Introduction This chapter introduces the task as a basic building block in the language curriculum. We shall look at some definitions of the term, and sce how tasks are related to other elements in the curriculum. If we look at what other people have written, we find that the term has been defined in a variety of ways. In general education, and in other fields such as psychology, there are many different definitions of tasks. There is also quite a variety from within the field of second language teaching, as the following definitions show.
Thus, examples of tasks include painting a fence, dressing a child, filling out a form, buying a pair Of shoes, making an airline reservation, borrowing 2 library book, taking a driving test, typing a letter, weighing a patient, sorting letters, aking a hotel reservation, writing a cheque, finding a street destination and helping someone across a road.
In fact, as the author points out, it describes the sorts of things that non-linguists would tell you they do if they were to be asked.
Where do we draw the boundaries? How do we decide where one task ends and the next begins? You might like to consider how many discrete tasks there are in the extract on pages Is there a single task with separate phases, or several tasks?
I shall present my own view later in the chapter. Now here is another definition, this time from a dictionary of applied linguistics: an activity or action which is carried out as the result of processing fo understanding language i. For example, drawing a map while listening co a tape, listening to an instruction and performing a command, may be referred co as tasks.
A task usually requires the teacher to specify what will be regarded as successful completion of the task. The use of a variety of different kinds of tasks in language teaching is said to make language teaching more communicative Breen 23 wer p10 Preclistening 1 a Look carefully at this questionnaire. What are your sleeping habits? A short questionnaire to discover your sleeping habits 1 How much tne do you pend on bedaking? If there is time, change roles, that is, the interviewer should now be interviewed.
Maley and Moulding: Learning t0 Listen, p. You should work on your own. As youtlisten, note down which ofthe suggested answers is nearest to the one given on the tape. Inone of them fit, then try to note down what the answer was.
Do not worry if you do not get all the information the first time. You will hear the tape at least three times. You will now hear a second, version of the interview. This time the interviewer does not ask all che questions and they are not in the same order asin the printed questionnaire.
Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom
Mokree Appendix C presents sets of activities graded ffor seven levels of difficulty. In fact, as the author points out, it describes the sorts of things that non-linguists would tell you they do if they were to be asked. Can the activities be assigned to one or more of the Clark and Pattison activity types or not? Traditional approaches to methodology tend to analyse tasks in terms of the macroskills of listening, speaking, reading and writing. The distinction being drawn here can be illustrated as follows: The syllabus which will be used by the examiners to set an end-of-course examin- ation specifies sets of grammatical, phonological, lexical, functional and notional items to be covered.
Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom
Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom. Nunan, David This book provides teachers with a practical introduction to the design and development of communicative language learning tasks. The ideas presented are relevant to teachers working in or preparing for a range of situations with a variety of learner types. First, some basic issues concerning communicative learning tasks are discussed, and the role of the learner is examined briefly. Central issues in language and learning relating to these tasks are then considered, particularly as they relate to learning in the four skill areas listening, speaking, reading, writing in a second language. Central characteristics of communicative learning tasks and a scheme for analyzing them are then outlined. A discussion of the roles of teacher and learner, implicit in any task, looks also at the ways in which the roles change as the focus of the activity changes.
Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom