JULIUS EPSTEIN OPERATION KEELHAUL PDF

Yalta Conference[ edit ] One of the conclusions of the Yalta Conference was that the western Allies would return all Soviet citizens who found themselves in their zones to the Soviet Union. This immediately affected the liberated Soviet prisoners of war , [3] but also extended to all Soviet citizens, irrespective of their wishes. In exchange, the Soviet government agreed to hand over several thousand western Allied prisoners of war whom they had liberated from German prisoner of war camps. This was done despite the official statement of the British Foreign Office policy after the Yalta Conference, that only Soviet citizens who had been such after 1 September , were to be compelled to return to the Soviet Union or handed over to Soviet officials in other locations see the Repatriation of Cossacks after World War II. The actual "Operation Keelhaul" was the last forced repatriation and involved the selection and subsequent transfer of approximately one thousand "Russians" from the camps of Bagnoli , Aversa , Pisa , and Riccione.

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Edit One of the conclusions of the Yalta Conference was that the western Allies would return all Soviet citizens who found themselves in their zones to the Soviet Union. This immediately affected the liberated Soviet prisoners of war , [4] but was also extended to all Eastern European refugees. In exchange, the Soviet government agreed to hand over several thousand western Allied prisoners of war whom they had liberated from German prisoner of war camps. President Franklin D. Roosevelt concluded the final form of their plans in a secret codicil to the agreement.

Outlining the plan to forcibly return the refugees to the Soviet Union, this codicil was kept secret from the US and British people for over 50 years. They included many anti-communists of several categories, assorted civilians, both from the Soviet Union and from Yugoslavia, and fascist collaborationists from eastern Slavic and other countries. Many were transported to remote locations in the Soviet Union and were denied basic rights and the opportunity to further their education.

Often prisoners were summarily executed by receiving Communist authorities, sometimes within earshot of the British.

This was done despite the official statement of the British Foreign Office policy after the Yalta Conference that only Soviet citizens, who had been such after September 1, , were to be compelled to return to the Soviet Union or handed over to Soviet officials in other locations for example see the Repatriation of Cossacks after World War II. The actual "Operation Keelhaul" was the last forced repatriation and involved the selection and subsequent transfer of approximately one thousand "Russians" from the camps of Bagnoli , Aversa , Pisa, and Riccione.

It was obvious to all that prisoners were sent to a fate of execution, torture, and slave labor. The transfer was codenamed "East Wind" and took place at St. Valentin in Austria on May 8 and 9, But the English and American bayonets, truncheons, machine guns and tanks used against them will never be forgotten. And they must never be forgotten Tolstoy lost the case in the British courts but the award against him was overturned by the European Court of Human Rights.

Tolstoy described the scene of Americans returning to the internment camp after having delivered a shipment of people to the Soviets. Before their departure from the rendezvous in the forest, many had seen rows of bodies already hanging from the branches of nearby trees.

See also.

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Julius Epstein (author)

He left Germany on March 17, and lived for a time in Prague, Czechoslovakia. When that country was threatened by Hitler in , he fled with his wife and son to Zurich. Epstein was accredited to the United Nations as foreign correspondent for a number of Swiss newspapers and also contributed articles on the growing crisis in Europe to US magazines. In , he joined the staff of the Office of War Information as language editor. In , he received an appointment to the Hoover Institution as an assistant to Dr. Epstein died in Palo Alto, California. He was survived by his widow, Vally, and a son, Peter Stevens.

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Julius Epstein (Autor)

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Operation Keelhaul

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