VAISHESHIKA PHILOSOPHY PDF

Overview[ edit ] Although the Vaisheshika system developed independently from the Nyaya school of Hinduism, the two became similar and are often studied together. In its classical form, however, the Vaishesika school differed from the Nyaya in one crucial respect: where Nyaya accepted four sources of valid knowledge, the Vaishesika accepted only two. Whatever human beings perceive is composite, and even the smallest perceptible thing, namely, a fleck of dust, has parts, which are therefore invisible. Size, form, truths and everything that human beings experience as a whole is a function of parmanus, their number and their spatial arrangements. Vaisheshika postulated that what one experiences is derived from dravya substance: a function of atoms, their number and their spatial arrangements , guna quality , karma activity , samanya commonness , vishesha particularity and nsamavaya inherence, inseparable connectedness of everything. It is of two types: external and internal.

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These are also called the Astika orthodox philosophical traditions and are those that accept the Vedas as authoritative, important source of knowledge. Figuratively, it means what has been seen, understood or known as the established truth. In Hindu tradition devotees visit religious places and temples to have a darshan of the deity. In the past kings in India would give an audience to the people and the officials who came to see them to give them an opportunity to interact with them or place their requests and appeals.

It was part of the darshana tradition only. In continuation of the tradition, even today people in India would eagerly wait for hours for the darshana of spiritual gurus and prominent public personalities. The darshana of a deity or a spiritual master is considered auspicious and purifying.

Hence, people frequently visit them to declare their faith or allegiance. Thus, in a generally sense darshana means having a direct vision of a rare object, a holy person, or a person of great significance. It is also used to mean a book or a scripture. For example, Tattva darshana means a book or a treatise on philosophy. The same holds true for Yoga Darshana, or Jnana Darshana. Darshana also means a perspective, view point, or a way of seeing eternal and philosophical truths. In the religions of Indian origin, a darshana refers to a body, system, or school of philosophy.

Each has a long history, believers, literary sources, and several sub schools. They variously speculate upon the nature of existence, God, soul, matter, Nature, reality, creation, truth, means to liberation, cause and effect, and so on according to their foundational beliefs. Thus, clearly the school is dualistic and attempts to establish the truths concerning the world and its numerous aspects by logical and rational means. Right knowledge is the knowledge that corresponds to the nature of the object, without the distortions of the mind and the senses.

Since it is an independent reality, it remains unaltered by our knowing or not knowing. It can be known only through pure perception, aided by right knowledge that is acquired through right methods of knowing and reasoning. Suffering is the result of ignorance, or wrong knowledge, which causes delusion, whereby one develops wrong notions about the realities of existence.

Liberation is gained by overcoming ignorance and delusion, and by gaining right knowledge. Vatsayana A. The school recognizes the existence of individual souls and their bondage to the realities of Nature. However, like the other two previous schools, it does recognize God and acknowledge him as the first and the highest among the individual souls Purushas.

The souls are numerous, eternal and exist as solid realities among other realities. They remain bound to the cycle of births and deaths until they gain right knowledge through right means of reasoning and validation of truths. As the name suggests it focuses upon the particularities or distinguishing properties of the objects or substances that are found in existence and how to ascertain truths regarding them. Based on the same logic and adherence to scientific realism they accept only two methods pramanas to arrive at truth, namely direct observation pratyaksha and inference or hypothesis anumana.

Another distinguishing feature of the school is its the atomic theory, according to which all substances are made up of minute parts or atoms paramanus of different kinds which are indivisible and indestructible.

Exceptions are those substances that are eternal and infinite such as souls and space. Atoms coalesce in different combinations to form a diversity of compounds and substances.

The substances possess one or more of the 24 qualities gunas the school identifies. It also upholds the idea that nonexistence is a material fact with four states such as nonexistence before the beginning of existence, nonexistence after the end of existence, existence and ultimate reality. This entry was posted in Vedic Philosophy. Bookmark the permalink. Temple Purohit TemplePurohit.

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Vaisheshika and Nyaya Philosophy in Hinduism

Thereafter the combined school was referred to as Nyaya-Vaisheshika. The Vaisheshika school attempts to identify, inventory, and classify the entities and their relations that present themselves to human perceptions. It lists six categories of being padarthas , to which was later added a seventh. These are: Dravya , or substance, the substratum that exists independently of all other categories, and the material cause of all compound things produced from it. Dravyas are nine in number: earth, water, fire, air, ether , time, space, spirit, and mind.

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