A.S.NEILL SUMMERHILL PDF

He was raised in an austere, Calvinist house with values of fear, guilt, and adult and divine authority, which he later repudiated. The village dominie held a position of prestige, hierarchically beneath that of upper classes, doctors, and clergymen. Instead of wasting time and money, [7] Neill went to work as a junior clerk in an Edinburgh gas meter factory. His parents took pity on his hatred of the job, homesickness, and its low pay, and so Neill became an apprentice draper in Forfar. He found the work stultifying and came home after a foot inflammation.

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He was raised in an austere, Calvinist house with values of fear, guilt, and adult and divine authority, which he later repudiated. The village dominie held a position of prestige, hierarchically beneath that of upper classes, doctors, and clergymen. Instead of wasting time and money, [7] Neill went to work as a junior clerk in an Edinburgh gas meter factory. His parents took pity on his hatred of the job, homesickness, and its low pay, and so Neill became an apprentice draper in Forfar.

He found the work stultifying and came home after a foot inflammation. Neill tried to take an examination that would raise his pay grade, but could not bring himself to study. He taught a wider range of topics as his self-confidence grew, and he developed an interest in mathematics from the Forfar Academy maths master. After four years, he tried for teacher training college, but came nearly last in his class. He also fell in love, and Margaret became an obsession of his.

He adopted progressive techniques at this school, and abandoned the tawse for other forms of establishing discipline. Neill was friendly and relaxed with his pupils, and described his two years there as "the happiest of [his] life thus far".

He also felt more confident to pursue women. He took a new job as art editor of the Piccadilly Magazine, but its operations were halted by the onset of World War I , [14] in which he served as an officer in the army. He returned to Scotland, working as a head teacher at Gretna Green School during the first year of the war. Neill was invited to join a progressive school in Dresden in The school moved to a monastery near Vienna in , where the townspeople did not receive it well.

He moved to England in and started Summerhill in Lyme Regis , where the name came from the estate. In , it moved to Leiston , where it remained. Despite this, he would flippantly remark that Summerhill was the only Christian school in England when its philosophy was compared with that of Christ. Neill saw the doctrine of "original sin" as a means of control and sought a world ruled by love and self-examination. Such unhappiness led to repressed and psychologically disordered adults.

He felt that children turned to self-hate and internal hostility when denied an outlet for expression in adult systems of emotional regulation and manipulation. Likewise, children taught to withhold their sexuality would see such feelings negatively, which would fuel disdain for self. Neill thought that calls for obedience quenched the natural needs of children. Moreover, their needs could not be fulfilled by adults or a society that simultaneously prolonged their unhappiness, although perhaps a school like Summerhill could help.

Denis Lawton, Education and Social Justice, p. Neill considered forced instruction without pupil interest a destructive waste of time. Bailey also cited "adaptive preferences" literature, where human interests change based on their surroundings and circumstances, as evidence of how intrinsic interest can be externally influenced. He saw their animalistic traits as qualities to be "outgrown with time and freedom". This education usually entailed copious amounts of play and distance from the adult anxieties of work and ambition.

The reverence for Reich appears in the abundant correspondence between them. Although not a trained therapist, Neill gave psychoanalytic private lessons to individual children, designed to unblock impasses in their inner energies.

Neill also offered body massage , as suggested by Reich. Neill later found that freedom cured better than this therapy. Neill saw moral instruction as a wedge between natural instinct and conformity and thought children were best off without it. Phillips declared Neill "the most notable figure in the Rousseauean tradition", and Frank Flanagan credited Neill with actualising what Rousseau envisaged. Richard Bailey described its result as "an American cult" of Summerhillian schools and their support organizations.

The book sold well and made Neill into a figurehead of new interest in education. The Times Educational Supplement listed him in its 12 most important British educationists of the millennium.

Herb Kohl declared Neill "one of the greatest democratic educators of the last century" in Journal reviews called Neill "the most popular writer on education today" and said of his works, "Nearly all the more alive and up-to-date teachers in Britain have read and argued about his notions". He was known via his books as a figure in the new psychoanalysis. He specifically discouraged American association with his school in both name and likeness.

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Alexander Sutherland Neill

Find us on Instagram A. That somebody of his generation could not only cross the divide between generations, but could also be a leader in a most modern approach to children and childhood, is extraordinary. He created a community in which children could be free from adult authority. He was also recognised amongst the top 12 men and women who have influenced British schooling during the last millennium by the Times Educational Supplement Neill has left us an extremely precious heritage. Neill was one of the great original thinkers in education in the 20th Century.

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