Strike 1: Lindstrom seems to think that technology -- all technology -- is neutral. His example is that hammers can do nasty things but there is no need to outlaw, restrict or ban hammers. Fine, I agree. As long as we are talking about hammers, that is. But when discussing companies doing fMRI scans on potential consumers to get at their instinctual, pre-rational impressions of Summation: Lindstrom gets all excited about doing brain scans on consumers as they view advertisements and products. But when discussing companies doing fMRI scans on potential consumers to get at their instinctual, pre-rational impressions of advertisements and products, the BS meter goes off: this is not neutral technology.
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As a result the book is set out in a series of experiments conducted to prove, disprove or explore theories of what drives consumers to buy or not to buy. The brain is deceptive misleading. This demonstrates that what we say we think or feel, is often not mirrored by our brain. So the billions spent on health campaigns are actually helping the tobacco industry — 10 million cigarettes are sold every minute.
We may think we understand why we buy but looking closely at our brain, suggests very a different picture. Emotions cloud our decisions whether consciously or subconsciously. The rational thinking was that if they waited longer they would have more. Chapter 2 Product placement works if fully entwined weaved into the programme TV advertisements are becoming increasingly monotonous, uninspiring and boring.
By this was down to only 2. Ultimately, our brains are so oversaturated by advertising that we block it. Cingular are mentioned each time callers call in to vote for their favourite contestant and Ford the sponsoring brand, features in ads during the break.
Each of the volunteers were shown a sequence of 20 product-logos which included Coke, Cingular and Ford before and after having watched an episode of American Idol and an episode of another unrelated show to act as a control.
Whilst wired up to the SST brain scan their brain activities were measured throughout. Results showed that after having watched American Idol, the brands featured were remembered afterwards and served to inhibit memory of the other brands.
The experiment Elderly people 60 — 85 years old split into 2 groups were given a computer game to play. During this, one group had a series of positive words e. The experiment Subjects were exposed to a millisecond image of either a smiling face or an unhappy face before pouring and paying for a drink.
The result: Those who viewed the happier face poured more drink and were willing to pay almost twice as much for the drink as those who saw the unhappy face. If an ad is understated, we let our guard down, and it might just have an impact. To counter this, for e. Marlboro use everyday objects and styles such as colour schemes, tiles with similar symbols to the Marlboro logo, ashtray designs and sofas in order to give the appearance of a Marlboro ad environment without brandishing the logo anywhere.
Consumers have a sense of loyalty to a preferred brand, similar to a religious affinity, for products such as shampoo and coffee, or a biscuit, which encourages them to keep buying.
For consumers to associate a brand with a nationwide ritual, this brings with it a sense of familiarity and unity — hence keeping sales going. Once the supplies ran out, the brand was reprinted without this X9 Factor. The result was thousands of complaints, sales decreased and, despite none of the customers knowing what the Factor X9 was, some claimed the shampoo no longer worked!
These logos are universal, and evoke powerful associations with the companies they represent, with consumers instantaneously knowing exactly what the logo stands for. Visual images are most effective if combined with sounds and smell for a more complete experience of the product. Uses of sound within the market — type of music played in supermarkets can determine type of product bought e.
French music increases sales of French wine as we subconsciously hear the music. Our senses are the most powerful tools we have. To determine what we feel about a product, use of sight, sound and smells together will revolutionise advertising in the future. The experiment A brain scan was conducted in which subjects were shown a slideshow composed of 4 different product categories: airlines, mobile phones, software and images of London city. Along with this, a selection of signature sounds associated to the four categories were selected.
Images unrelated to the sounds were also shown to act as controls. The sounds were played in a 10 minute series alone, followed by the images alone and then slides where a sound was played along with the image displayed. This sequence was repeated 5 times with the participants scoring from what their preferences were between sound, image or sound and image together. The results: We can recall what we see and hear much better if our sight and hearing are stimulated at the same time compared with when they are working alone.
Brain activity increases, suggesting we are paying more attention, when both sight and sound is stimulated. Therefore, if a well known logo is coupled with a familiar theme tune, the consumer will be much more likely to notice and remember the product. Colour is very powerful in connecting consumers visually with a logo or brand.
Neuromarketing could be the solution to this as neuromarketing could help to determine how successful a brand will be. The experiment 4 groups of 50 men and women representing the general demographics of the US population were used in the SST brain scan. To reduce novelty effect, all the participants had watched an episode of both their shows the night before.
Each person filled in a questionnaire answering what the chances were of them watching the programme again and these answers were compared with the brainscan.
The SST scans, however, showed results that mirrored the relative successes of each show. Lets checkout the experiment. Then, one group from each category watched ads which were sexually suggestive and the remaining two groups watched advertisements containing no sexual connotations. The aim being to see whether sex helps consumers remember a product. Evidently, the sexual implication stole their attention away from what the ad was trying to sell. Lindstrom claims that in this era, sex is so accessible and over-commercialized that it has lost its shock-value.
These nerves in our brains are responsible for the feeling. We get when we relate to something we are seeing or thinking about. Trends are set due to mirror neurons such as the iPod, everyone else has one — so I want one. Dopamine is a chemical released in our brains which make us feel a surge of happiness. This chemical is often released whilst shopping, making us feel good about purchasing a product that we see and are automatically drawn to, regardless of whether we can afford it.
Seeing diamonds in the window will release dopamine as we like what we see and increase the chances of us buying it. We buy things which make us look good and elevate us up the social hierarchy.
All products in the future will be branded using brain scans prior to introducing them to the market but this will be initially very expensive and time consuming. Despite the cost, companies are already using neuromarketing e. Christian Dior, Microsoft, Unilever. Finally, there is, as yet, still much to discover about the science behind why we buy — and neuroscience is leading the way.
Buyology: Truth and Lies About Why We Buy – Buyology Book Summary
What I learned in Buyology: Warning labels on cigarettes just make people want to smoke more. Page We instinctively copy other people. Page 53 Sexy models in ads appeal more to same-sex readers and watchers. Page 44 Martin weaves all these lessons and more into stories that are introduced, developed, and referenced throughout the book. The book is not epic sized; just shy of pages and the references and bibliography pages are loaded.
Buyology: Truth and Lies About Why We Buy and the New Science of Desire
So, as much as we want to cut down the spending, our irrational brain comes bursting with emotions and crying for the latest gadget. The bad part is that when asked, we might not be aware of our actual desires or we would just rather hide them away — hoping that the temptation is not that powerful. Brands and the marketers behind them have their own part of the fault. In fact, Martin is concerned about the fact that what people say and how they really feel are not the same and the results of the current marketing research methods could be misleading in some cases. Therefore, he is promoting MRI as an efficient tool in analyzing the real effects of advertising on consumers.