As poet and painter, he was the major Italian representative of Dadaism He enjoyed an international reputation as the author of books on magic, alchemy and eastern religious traditions and won the respect of such important scholars as Mircea Eliade and Giuseppe Tucci. His book on early Buddhism, The Doctrine of Awakening,  which was translated in , established his reputation among English-speaking esotericists. Both books, however, are serious studies, not sex manuals. During the s most of his books, New Age and political, were translated into French under the aegis of Alain de Benoist, the leader of the French Nouvelle Droite.
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As poet and painter, he was the major Italian representative of Dadaism He enjoyed an international reputation as the author of books on magic, alchemy and eastern religious traditions and won the respect of such important scholars as Mircea Eliade and Giuseppe Tucci.
His book on early Buddhism, The Doctrine of Awakening,  which was translated in , established his reputation among English-speaking esotericists. Both books, however, are serious studies, not sex manuals.
During the s most of his books, New Age and political, were translated into French under the aegis of Alain de Benoist, the leader of the French Nouvelle Droite. In the s political scientists Thomas Sheehan, Franco Ferraresi, and Richard Drake wrote about him unsympathetically, blaming him for Neo-Fascist terrorism. It remains to be seen whether his Hermetic virtues can be disentangled from his political sins. He was no fool; and he cannot possibly have been right.
His longer essay is essential for serious students, and Inner Traditions deserves warm thanks for publishing it. The Mystery of the Grail,  first published in , praises the Holy Roman Empire as a great political force, led by Germans and Italians, which tried to unite Europe under the Nordic Ghibellines. The variation is also a challenge. If you believe you know the truth, it is hard not to be contemptuous of a system that determines matters by counting heads and ignores the distinction between the knowledgeable and the ignorant.
This agreement is significant, because for Evola politics is an expression of basic principles and he never tires of repeating his own. The transcendent is real. This is Tradition, with a capital T. Human beings are tri-partite: body, soul, and spirit. State and society are hierarchical and the clearer the hierarchy, the healthier the society.
The worst traits of the modern world are its denial of transcendence, reductionist vision of man and egalitarianism. The economy is only a tool to provide the basis for such accomplishments and to sustain the kind of society that permits the best to attain sanctity and greatness.
The modern world denies this vision. In both individual and collective life the economic factor is the most important, real, and decisive one. An economic era is already by definition a fundamentally anarchical and anti-hierarchical era; it represents a subversion of the normal order.
This subversive character is found in both Marxism and in its apparent nemesis, modern capitalism. This should be firmly upheld by those today who are taking a stand against the forces of the Left.
Nothing is more evident than that modern capitalism is just as subversive as Marxism. The materialistic view of life on which both systems are based is identical. Evola rejected the Enlightenment project lock, stock, and barrel, and had little use for the Renaissance and the Reformation.
His books ask us to take seriously the attempt to imagine an intellectual and political world that radically rejects the leftist worldview. He insists that those really opposed to the leftist regime, the true Right, are not embarrassed to use words like reactionary and counter revolutionary.
If you are afraid of these words, you do not have the courage to stand up to the modern world. He also countenances the German expression, Conservative Revolution, if properly understood. Revolution is acceptable only if it is true re-volution, a turning back to origins.
Conservatism is valid only when it preserves the true Tradition. So loyalty to the bourgeois order is a false conservatism, because on the level of principle, the bourgeoisie is an economic class, not a true aristocracy. The Volk is not the basis of a true state, an imperium. Rather the state creates the people. Hansen thinks these plans were utopian, but Evola was in touch with the latest political science.
The study of elites and their role in every society, especially liberal democracies, was virtually an Italian monopoly in the first half of the Twentieth century, carried on by men like Roberto Michels, Gaetano Mosca, and Vilfredo Pareto. Evola saw that nothing can be accomplished without leadership. The modern world needs a true elite to rescue it from its involution into materialism, egalitarianism and its obsession with the economy and to restore a healthy regime of order, hierarchy and spiritual creativity.
When that elite is educated and initiated, then and only then a true state can be created and the Dark Age will come to an end. Egalitarianism, Fascism, Race, and Roman Catholicism Despite his criticism of the demagogic and populist aspects of Fascism and National Socialism, Evola believed that under their aegis Italy and Germany had turned away from liberalism and communism and provided the basis for a return to aristocracy, the restoration of the castes and the renewal of a social order based on Tradition and the transcendent.
Even after their defeat in World War II, Evola believed that the fight was not over, although he became increasingly discouraged and embittered in the decades after the war. Pain from a crippling injury suffered in an air raid may have contributed to this feeling. Although Evola believed that the transcendent was essential for a true revival, he did not look to the Catholic Church for leadership. Men Among the Ruins was published in , when the official position of the Church was still strongly anti-Communist and Evola had lived through the s and s when the Vatican signed the Concordat with Mussolini.
So his analysis of the Church, modified but not changed for the second edition in , is impressive as is his prediction that the Church would move to the left. By now, the categorical condemnations of modernism and progressivism are a thing of the past.
Evola rejected the Catholic Church as a source of religion and morality independent of the state, because he saw its universalistic claims as compatible with and tending toward liberal egalitarianism and humanitarianism, despite its anti-Communist rhetoric.
Meanwhile, Mussolini was negotiating with Pope Pius XI for a reconciliation in which the Church would give its blessings to his regime in return for protection of its property and official recognition as the religion of Italy.
Italy had been united by the Piedmontese conquest of Papal Rome in , and the Popes had never recognized the new regime.
Even Reghini and Bottai turned against Evola. Evola has been vindicated on the main point. The Catholic Church accepts liberal democracy and even defends it as the only legitimate regime.
Pope Pius IX was beatified for proclaiming the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception, not for his Syllabus Errorum, which denounced the idea of coming to terms with liberalism and modern civilization.
Those who want to distance Evola from Fascism emphasize the debate over Pagan Imperialism. For several years afterwards Fascist toughs harassed Evola, until he won the patronage of Roberto Farinacci, the Fascist boss of Cremona. Since he identified Fascism with the Roman tradition, he had no choice but to reckon as its adversary any historical vision of a universalistic order.
Evola was already writing on the racial views consistent with a Traditional vision of mankind in opposition to what he saw as the biological reductionism and materialism of Nazi racial thought. Therefore racial treatment of man can not stop only at a biological level. So a biological Jew might have an Aryan soul or spirit and biological Aryans might — and did — have a Semitic soul or spirit.
As Landra saw, this was the end of any politically useful scientific racism. This appendix is not translated in the Inner Traditions or the German editions, confirming its accuracy. Evola responded. I should say that if such are the terms of the accusation,  I would be honored to see, seated at the same bank of accusation, such people as Aristotle, Plato, the Dante of De Monarchia, and so on up to Metternich and Bismarck.
My principles are only those that, before the French Revolution, every well-born person considered sane and normal.
He attacked conciliation with the Vatican in the years before the Vatican Accords and developed an interpretation of race that directly contradicted the one favored by the German government and important currents within Fascism. His journal, La Torre The Tower , was closed down in because of his criticism of Fascist toughs, gli squadristi. Evola, however, never had to face jail for his serious writings during the Fascist era. That had to wait for liberal democracy.
On the other hand, Evola considered his politics a direct deduction from his beliefs about Tradition. He was a sympathetic critic of Fascism, but a remorseless opponent of liberal democracy. Will they go on to publish the rest of his oeuvre? I would suggest beginning with the short pamphlet, Orientamenti Orientations ,  which Evola composed in as a summary of the doctrine of Men Among the Ruins.
Yet Evola confronts the modern world with an absolute challenge. Its materialism, egalitarianism, feminism, and economism are fundamentally wrong. It may be discouraging to think that we are living in a Dark Age, but the Kali Yuga is also the end of a cosmic cycle.
When the current age ends, a new one will begin. We may live to see that day. If anything positive can be accomplished today or tomorrow, it will not come from the skills of agitators and politicians, but from the natural prestige of men both of yesterday but also, and more so, from the new generation, who recognize what they can achieve and so vouch for their idea.
We do not need programs and marketing strategies, but men like that. La dottrina del risveglio, Bari, , revised in Rivolta contro il mondo moderno, Milan, , revised , Robin Waterfield gives a useful bibliography at the end of his Gnosis essay note 8, below p.
Merkl, ed. Gli uomini e le rovine, Rome, , revised , with a new appendix, Rome, Herrschaft und Gestalt, Hamburg, , was translated into Italian in Armin Mohler, Die konservative Revolution in Deutschland, , Stuttgart, , revised and expanded in , , , Panajotis Kondylis, Conservativismus: Geschichtlicher Gehalt und Untergang, Stuttgart, , devotes pages to this theme. Evola applied for membership in the Fascist Party in in order to enlist in the army as an officer, but in vain for reasons discussed by Hansen note 26, above xiii.
Men Among the Ruins note 26, above pp. Imperialismo Pagano, Rome, , p. Christian Kopff. Sintesi di dottrina della razza, Milan, ; Grundrisse der faschistischen Rassenlehre, Berlin, Sintesi di dottrina della razza note 35, above p. Il mito del sangue: Genesi del razzismo, Rome, , revised Ludwig Ferdinand Clauss, Rasse und Seele. Evola is discussed on pp.
Bis [ Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten ] Evola erhielt eine strenge katholische Erziehung. Er beschreibt darin aus seiner Sicht Nachteile aktueller politischer und gesellschaftlicher Strukturen, insbesondere von demokratischen Gesellschaften, des Kommunismus , des Nationalsozialismus und italienischen Faschismus. Imperialismo pagano. Ausgabe: Heidnischer Imperialismus. Armanen-Verlag , Leipzig La tradizione ermetica. Von der alchemistischen Umwandlung der Metalle und des Menschen in Gold. Ausgabe: Das Mysterium des Grals.
revolte gegen die moderne welt von evola julius
Revolte Gegen die Moderne Welt