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The TPAD2 can drive stereo speakers as low as 8?. The high efficiency of the TPAD2 eliminates the need for external heatsinks when playing music. The gain of the amplifier is controlled by two gain select pins.
The gain selections are Thermal protection ensures the maximum junction temperature is not exceeded. PVCC 10? F nF 0. F Left Differential Inputs 0. Optimal output filter for EMI suppression Please be aware that an important notice concerning availability, standard warranty, and use in critical applications of Texas Instruments semiconductor products and disclaimers thereto appears at the end of this data sheet.
Products conform to specifications per the terms of the Texas Instruments standard warranty. Production processing does not necessarily include testing of all parameters. BSLP 1? F Copyright? The leads should be shorted together or the device placed in conductive foam during storage or handling to prevent electrostatic damage to the MOS gates.
Exposure to absolute—maximum—rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. To order a taped and reeled part, add the suffix R to the part number e. Not specified for driving other external circuitry. Gain select least significant bit. Gain select most significant bit. Internally generated voltage supply for left channel bootstrap capacitors. Internally generated voltage supply for right channel bootstrap capacitors. Internal resistive connection to AGND. Output Power?
W Figure 1. Figure 2. Hz 10 k 20 k Figure 3. Hz 10 k 20 k Figure 5. Figure 6. Total Output Power? W 10 12 0 50 Phase? Supply Current? Supply Voltage? V 17 18 Figure 9. Figure V 13 14? Common-Mode Rejection Ratio? Supply Ripple Rejection Ratio? Hz 10 k 20 k Figure Traditional Class-D Modulation Scheme The traditional class-D modulation scheme, which is used in the TPAD0x family, has a differential output where each output is degrees out of phase and changes from ground to the supply voltage, VCC.
The traditional class-D modulation scheme with voltage and current waveforms is shown in Figure The voltage across the load sits at 0 V throughout most of the switching period, greatly reducing the switching current, which reduces any I2R losses in the load. This causes more loss in the load, which causes lower efficiency. The ripple current is large for the traditional modulation scheme, because the ripple current is proportional to voltage multiplied by the time at that voltage.
The differential voltage swing is 2 x VCC, and the time at each voltage is half the period for the traditional modulation scheme. An ideal LC filter is needed to store the ripple current from each half cycle for the next half cycle, while any resistance causes power dissipation. The speaker is both resistive and reactive, whereas an LC filter is almost purely reactive. As the output power increases, the pulses widen, making the ripple current larger.
Ripple current could be filtered with an LC filter for increased efficiency, but for most applications the filter is not needed. An LC filter with a cutoff frequency less than the class-D switching frequency allows the switching current to flow through the filter instead of the load. The filter has less resistance than the speaker, which results in less power dissipation, therefore increasing efficiency.
Damage may occur if the voice coil cannot handle the additional heat generated from the high-frequency switching current. The amount of power dissipated in the speaker may be estimated by first considering the overall efficiency of the system.
If the on-resistance rds on of the output transistors is considered to cause the dominant loss in the system, then the maximum theoretical efficiency for the TPAD2 with an 8-? It can be assumed that the quiescent current encapsulates all remaining losses in the device, i. Because the 0. Furthermore, this power dissipated is well within the specifications of most loudspeaker drivers in a system, as the power rating is typically selected to handle the power generated from a clipping waveform.
Powered speakers, where the speaker is in the same enclosure as the amplifier, is a typical application for class-D without a filter. Most applications require a ferrite bead filter. When selecting a ferrite bead, choose one with high impedance at high frequencies, but low impedance at low frequencies.
When both a LC filter and a ferrite bead filter are used, the LC filter should be placed as close as possible to the IC followed by the ferrite bead filter.
F Figure The gains listed in Table 1 are realized by changing the taps on the input resistors inside the amplifier. This causes the input impedance Zi to be dependent on the gain setting. The actual gain settings are controlled by ratios of resistors, so the gain variation from part-to-part is small. For design purposes, the input network discussed in the next section should be designed assuming an input impedance of 26 k?
At the lower gain settings, the input impedance could increase as high as k? Table 1. As a result, if a single capacitor is used in the input high-pass filter, the -3 dB or cutoff frequency changes when changing gain steps. Use Table 1 for Zi values. In this case, Ci and the input impedance of the amplifier Zi form a high-pass filter with the corner frequency determined in Equation 6. Consider the example where Zi is k?
Equation 6 is reconfigured as Equation 7. F as this value is commonly used. If the gain is known and is constant, use Zi from Table 1 to calculate Ci. A further consideration for this capacitor is the leakage path from the input source through the input network Ci and the feedback network to the load. This leakage current creates a dc offset voltage at the input to the amplifier that reduces useful headroom, especially in high gain applications.
For this reason, a low-leakage tantalum or ceramic capacitor is the best choice. When polarized capacitors are used, the positive side of the capacitor should face the amplifier input in most applications as the dc level there is held at 2. Note that it is important to confirm the capacitor polarity in the application.
For the best pop performance, CI should be less than or equal to 1? Power supply decoupling also prevents oscillations for long lead lengths between the amplifier and the speaker.
The optimum decoupling is achieved by using two capacitors of different types that target different types of noise on the power supply leads. For higher frequency transients, spikes, or digital hash on the line, a good low equivalent-series-resistance ESR ceramic capacitor, typically 0.
F placed as close as possible to the device VCC lead works best. For filtering lower-frequency noise signals, a larger aluminum electrolytic capacitor of 10? F or greater placed near the audio power amplifier is recommended. The ?
F capacitor also serves as local storage capacitor for supplying current during large signal transients on the amplifier outputs. Therefore, they require bootstrap capacitors for the high side of each output to turn on correctly.
A nF ceramic capacitor, rated for at least 25 V, must be connected from each output to its corresponding bootstrap input. See the application circuit diagram in Figure The bootstrap capacitors connected between the BSxx pins and corresponding output function as a floating power supply for the high-side N-channel power MOSFET gate drive circuitry. During each high-side switching cycle, the bootstrap capacitors hold the gate-to-source voltage high enough to keep the high-side MOSFETs turned on.
Two 1-? It requires a 1-? F capacitor, placed close to the pin, to keep the regulator stable. Differential Input The differential input stage of the amplifier cancels any noise that appears on both input lines of the channel.
In a single-ended input application, the unused input should be ac-grounded at the audio source instead of at the device input for best noise performance.
For the best power-off pop performance, place the amplifier in the shutdown mode prior to removing the power supply voltage.
The TPAD2 can drive stereo speakers as low as 8?. The high efficiency of the TPAD2 eliminates the need for external heatsinks when playing music. The gain of the amplifier is controlled by two gain select pins. The gain selections are Thermal protection ensures the maximum junction temperature is not exceeded. PVCC 10? F nF 0.
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The program does function well, but brings up little text from the linked story. The app is very lightweight and supports a lot of features that are great for increasing productivity during your daily computer use. Unlimited free archiving: With Tpad2 for Mac you can create enormous archives — the only limitation is the availability of disk space. Quick and easy to install save the obligatory log-in to your Instagram account , Tpad2 allows you to quickly and easily see all of your images, popular photos from other Instagram users, and both share and save them with ease.